Lan Yu Napisy Chinese Bilingual
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In silent films, there is no sound to translate, only the text on-screen. One surprise for first-time viewers of Chinese silent films is that many include bilingual title cards in Chinese and English. Films like Woman Warrior White Rose (Nüxia bai meigui, 1928), Two Stars (Yinhan shuangxing, 1931), and Song of China (Tianlun, 1935) sought to tell stories to a global audience.
English Teaching & Learning aims to publish quality papers that contribute to all aspects of the profession, with a particular preference for studies that seek to combine both theory and practice. The journal welcomes submissions on course design, teaching materials, teacher training, teaching methods, language assessment, and bilingual education, as well as from the fields of sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and other related areas.
Live-Action TV Brooklyn Nine-Nine: the season 1 episode "Fancy Brudgom" has some Gratuitous Danish, with Peralta correctly mentioning that brudgom means "groom" and forlover means "best man" (although his pronunciation sucks). Hiroshi Matsumoto of Gaki no Tsukai ya Arahende fame did a skit where he gathered people from twelve different countries, got them to talk to him in their native languages on various topics, and responded while pretending to know what they are saying. Horrible Histories' Owain Glyndwr song has gratuitous Welsh at the end. The title character of I Dream of Jeannie speaks Farsi upon being released from her bottle in the series' pilot. JAG: Mac gets to speak Farsi on several occasions. Catherine Bell speaks that language for real. Jeopardy! host Alex Trebek was multilingual,note He grew up in a bilingual English-French household in Sudbury, Ontario (his mother was Franco-Ontarienne; his father was born in Ukraine but had come to Canada as a child and grew up speaking English) and had learned other languages later on. and would often read clues dealing with foreign words in as close to that language's accent as possible. He also liked to throw foreign phrases at contestants who mentioned fluency in another language. In Stargate Atlantis, Zelenka will often spout unsubtitled Czech, which is nearly always a Bilingual Bonus and often breaks the fourth wall (in hilarious fashion). The team is also, by concept, international, and filming in the very multi-cultural Vancouver means that many of the extras are multilingual as well; you can hear snippets of French, Spanish, German, and others in the background. Wheel of Fortune host Pat Sajak is of Polish ancestry, and will occasionally say something in Polish if a contestant also happens to be Polish. Zyuden Sentai Kyoryuger throws in gratuitous Brazilian Portuguese for Japanese children's television.
MSLT The Microsoft Speech Language Translation (MSLT) corpus (Federmann and Lewis 2016) consists of bilingual conversations on Skype, together with transcriptions and translations. For each bilingual speaker pair, there is one conversation where the first speaker uses their native language and the second speaker uses English, and another with the roles reversed. The first phase transcripts were annotated for disfluencies, noise and code switching. In a second phase, the transcripts were cleaned, punctuated and recased. The corpus contains 7 to 8 h of speech for each of English, German, and French. The English speech was translated to both German and French, while German and French speech was translated only to English. Federmann and Lewis (2017) repeat the process with Japanese and Chinese, expanding the dataset with 10 h of Japanese and 4.5 h of Chinese speech.
Bansal et al. (2019) apply crosslingual pretraining, by pretraining on high-resource ASR to improve low-resource SLT. They use a small Mboshi\(\rightarrow \)French SLT corpus without source transcripts. As Mboshi has no official orthography, transcripts may be difficult to collect. Pretraining the speech encoder using a completely unrelated high-resource language, English, effectively allows to account for acoustic variability, such as speaker and channel differences. Di Gangi et al. (2019d) train a one-to-many multilingual system to translate from English to all 8 target languages of the MuST-C corpus, with an additional task pair for English ASR. Prepending a target language tag to the input (Johnson et al. 2017), is not effective in multilingual SLT, resulting in many acceptable translations into the wrong language. Better results are achieved with a stronger language signal using merge, a language-dependent shifting operation. Inaguma et al. (2019a) train multilingual models for en, es \(\rightarrow \) en, fr, de SLT. They achieve better results with the multilingual models than with bilingual ones, including pipeline methods for some test sets.
Recent research has shown that visual expertise in one domain may influence processing in other domains that involve similar processes. For example, as compared with novices, car experts had longer searching time for a target face with concurrent car distractors1 and had more difficulties in recognizing cars with face distractors2 due to a shared holistic processing mechanism. In Chinese character recognition, simplified Chinese readers could generalize left side bias and analytic character processing of simplified Chinese characters to the processing of traditional Chinese characters due to similarities in global character structure3,4. Similarly, recent research has reported that music reading experience can modulate perceptual processes in word reading. Interestingly, it is shown to modulate perceptual processes in English word reading due to similarities in the perceptual processes involved, but not in Chinese character reading. More specifically, Chinese-English bilingual musicians had better English word naming performance than non-musicians when words were presented in the left visual field (LVF)/right hemisphere (RH) and the center5, and a larger visual span for English letter identification in the right visual field (RVF) than non-musicians6. These effects were not observed in Chinese character naming or identification, suggesting that the modulation effect may depend on processing similarities across perceptual expertise domains. More specifically, both grapheme-phoneme mapping in reading English words and note-to-pitch mapping in reading musical segments involve mapping individual visual components to individual sounds from left to right7. Consequently, music reading expertise may have facilitated the letter-by-letter, serial visual processing of English words that characterizes RH English word recognition8, and perceptual learning of letters and notes that are typically recognized in the RVF/LH due to the left-to-right reading direction and required analytic processing9. In contrast, Chinese character recognition does not involve left-to-right grapheme-phoneme conversion and is more RH-lateralized or bilateral than English word processing10,11,12,13, and Chinese can be read in all directions14. Consequently, the facilitation effects from music reading expertise were not observed. These findings are consistent with the recent literature suggesting that transfer or modulation effects of perceptual expertise depend on the similarities in the perceptual representations and processes involved3,4,9,15.
While previous research has reported differential modulation effects of music reading expertise on visual word processing and visual span between English reading and Chinese reading in Chinese-English bilinguals, it remains unclear whether similar differential modulation effects can be observed in visual processing during sentence reading due to similarities and dissimilarities in perceptual demands among reading music notations, English sentences, and Chinese sentences. These modulation effects in visual processing may be reflected in eye movement planning behaviour during reading. More specifically, Chinese sentence reading differs from English sentence/music notation reading in its perceptual processing demands. Whereas both music notations and English sentences consist of musical segments/words separated by spaces, Chinese sentences do not have word boundaries. Also, musical segments and English words both consist of horizontally arranged symbols from left to right, each of which maps to a component in the pronunciation/sound. In contrast, components in a Chinese character can appear in different configurations and do not typically match components in the pronunciation. Thus, planning where to look during music reading may share higher similarities to English reading than Chinese reading.
Music expertise is also shown to modulate semantic processing in language. For example, a pervious study showed that musicians outperformed non-musicians in identifying animal-related words23. Another study found that musicians made fewer mistakes than non-musicians in judging whether a newly-learned word was semantically related to a presented picture24. Thus, music expertise may modulate sensitivity to both syntactic and semantic regularities, and in bilinguals, this effect may be observed in both of their two languages.
A processing advantage for emotional words relative to neutral words has been widely demonstrated in the monolingual domain (e.g., Kuperman et al., 2014). It is also well-known that, in bilingual speakers who have a certain degree of proficiency in their second language, the effects of the affective content of words on cognition are not restricted to the native language (e.g., Ferré et al., 2010). The aim of the present study was to test whether this facilitatory effect can also be obtained during the very early stages of word acquisition. In the context of a novel word learning paradigm, participants were trained on a set of Basque words by associating them to their Spanish translations. Words' concreteness and affective valence were orthogonally manipulated. Immediately after the learning phase and 1 week later, participants were tested in a Basque go-no go lexical decision task as well as in a translation task in which they had to provide the Spanish translation of the Basque words. A similar pattern of results was found across tasks and sessions, revealing main effects of concreteness and emotional content as well as an interaction between both factors. Thus, the emotional content facilitated the acquisition of abstract, but not concrete words, in the new language, with a more reliable effect for negative words than for positive ones. The results are discussed in light of the embodied theoretical view of semantic representation proposed by Kousta et al. (2011). 59ce067264